everything youve described is quite usual for someone starting to run, the sore calfs and tender bone are both very common. The bone pain in particular is probably a sign you need to back off a little.
Do you do any other exercise? from my own experience, and obviously hindsight is perfect...I think if we all did at least one session of leg and core strength work a week instead of a run then we wouldnt see as many of these injuries as we do.
Your dad may well be right about gait and form, but good form comes from a strong core and legs. As for shoes, I think some people would say your shoes were "entry level" but at your weight and age I don't think it ought to be a factor.
Yes I do, but I think if you're starting out, it's hard enough putting one leg in front of the other without trying to alter your natural stride at the same time. A few minutes each day on simple conditioning exercises will probably do you more good in the long term.