I'm 25 with the same problem.... I did a trail half marathon a couple of weeks ago and I could barely move my big toe afterwards.
I seem to differ from everyone else in that I have high arches, and orthotics from the podiatrist actually made my toe joints worse and more painful! So I've stopped wearing them and things have improved.
Physio gave me exercises (like picking up socks with my toes... and pushing the joint left/right/up/down). I find ibuprofen in the middle of a race sometimes eases the pain a little, and then just lots of wiggling the toes afterwards when they get a bit stiff!
Do you have 'greek' toes, where the 2nd toe is longer than the big toe? I have this and my nails are wrecked! The only thing I've read about is to get shoes a little bit bigger that can accommodate your feet hitting the front of them. My nails don't lift off the bed, but they're exceptially thick and brittle due to knocking them all the time. Sorry I'm no more help!