I tried Inov-8 shoes (Road X255) when I switched from heel striking & had all sorts of calf & knee problems fairly quickly. I saw a gait analyst who said although I had a nice midfoot landing, I just needed more cushioning. I had a few recommendations for lower profile shoes with good cushioning & settled for the Saucony Hurricane 15. They are very light with good support & great but not too soft cushioning, well worth a look. The Inov-8's were good shoes but just not for me.
Forget the dog, it sounds like the owner should be put down.
I was bitten by a dog one evening when out running with my club, a group of us ran past the dog which was on a lead & it just jumped & bit me, lucky me. I just think it was scared & although it never punctured my skin I had a nice bruise the next day. As I ran off the owner shouted "sorry Mate" I've passed many dogs before & since & am always wary that they could just attack as they're startled so I cross roads or give a wide berth etc
Don't let it put you off dogs or running Duck & I hope you recover from all of this ok
Freddie, wear what's comfortable for you, especially in cold weather, whether it's designed for running or not. I quite often just wear normal tees under my jacket in the rain. As for being 'not a good runner' if you're out in all weathers for 40 mins four times weekly, that's pretty good going, your speed will improve if you keep that up!
In my expereience, a Goretex jacket is worth wearing in extreme cold - I had mine pinched by a low life, then bought a cheap replacement as I couldn't afford another. I couldn't wear it for long as I boiled up. Now I only wear a jacket in rain, if it's just cold these days I'm in the long sleeves/gloves combo.
I have tried the Gore jackets on btw, they are great quality (as you'd expect for the price!) if you choose to buy one they come up small so you need to try one on rather than buy online.