Posted: 13/08/2014 at 15:08
Not exactly a medical opinion but is sounds very similar to a severe 'bout' of shin splints I had once. I am one of those folks who got the dreaded shin splints when I started running (or walked around in hard high heels too often) - right down the front of my shins - the usual place. I ran through them, toughened up and thought the issue was just a matter of getting used to it. A few years into my running career I did a few too many races followed straight away with hard speed session (yes I know better!). The pain I had made me almost vomit. Sharp, nerve pain that felt like there was exposed nerves wrapped down and under the bone in my leg and back into the achilles. i.e. Like the leg bone was right on top of a nerve. So, not exactly how you describe but certainly from front to back and to lower part of the calf. It did turn out to be shin spints and I got physio, retrained myself to run mid-foot and did lots of yoga. Not the perfect answer to your problem as I had an obvious mechanical issue with my running style that I could change and that solved things (only took a year or so )
One place to start would be a better/different physio. I have a guy I go to that doesn't give up till he finds the answer but over the years have seen many who have shrugged their shoulders and said 'don't know - rest and see'. A good physio is worth their weight in gold.